IHC & ICC & IF Staining

Immunocytochemistry (ICC), Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Immunofluorescence (IF) all utilize antibodies to provide visual details about protein abundance, distribution, and localization.

IHC is a staining technique that utilizes specific antibodies to identify the presence or absence of specific protein antigens by a chromogenic detection system. IHC is widely used in basic research and clinical laboratories because this technique makes it possible to visualize the distribution and localization of specific cellular components in an appropriate tissue context.

The difference between ICC and IHC is whether it detects the target antigen in the cell or the tissue section. ICC can use adherent culture cell lines or cell line suspensions or cells isolated from humans or animals.

Immunofluorescence (IF) is used to localize specific constituents in tissue sections or immobilized cells by using fluorescent tags as labels. This technique offers a wider dynamic range than traditional IHC/ICC. Since each fluorescent tag can be visualized separately, IF has the added benefit of multiplexing, where multiple proteins can be localized simultaneously within the same sample.

Whether you need routine semi-quantitative assessments, or fully quantitative evaluations and reporting, our platform has the capability and expertise to interpret your research accurately.

TechniqueLabelSample
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)EnzymaticTissue sections
Immunocytochemistry (ICC)EnzymaticCell slide or cell
Immunofluorescence (IF)FluorescentTissue or cell
  • Using IHC/ICC, you can visualize proteins with colored chromogens and observe them with a brightfield microscope.
  • IF uses fluorescently labeled antibodies to locate the target protein in tissues/cells, and observes it with a fluorescent microscope.
  • IHC and IF can be used to detect a single protein in a tissue, or multiple detection of two or more proteins on a glass slide.
  • ICC is very suitable to determine whether a cell expresses a certain protein, while also providing subcellular location, and used to determine whether multiple proteins are in the same location in multiple detection.

Routine Service

We perform IHC, IF and ICC staining of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections, fresh frozen sections, cultured cells and whole mount samples by using our well-established, optimized antibody staining protocols, as well as double-labeled IHC services to localize two proteins simultaneously on the same tissue section.

IHC/IF Validation Service

In order to successfully and consistently perform routine IHC/IF staining, it is critical to develop optimal protocols for specific antibodies. Our IHC/IF Validation Service has established protocols for more than 200 biomarkers spanning oncology, immunology, neuroscience, and metabolic diseases.

Whole Mount Staining Service

Our routine Whole Mount Staining Service is performed by using standard IHC, IF and immuneperoxidase methods. In addition, we can tailor specific staining protocols according to client's requirements.

Multiplex IHC/IF Services

We provide multiplex IHC and IF assays to enable detection of multiple targets on one section. Our automated approach uses Leica robots to give you with consistent, reproducible and high-throughput service that can be adapted for multiple protocols and detection strategies.

Key Features

  • Extensive experience of multiple detection systems and protocols
  • Range of antigen retrieval approaches including high pressure/high temperature
  • Multiple antibody species detection available including mouse, rabbit, goat, rat and chicken
  • Multiplexing with chromogenic or fluorescent endpoints
  • Compatible with both manual and automated platforms
  • Consistent, reliable, and sharp results
  • Cost-effective and time-saving

Our platform will continue to develop the list of targets we can detect, if you would like to discuss your project further, please contact us.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) & Immunofluorescence (IF) StainingFigure 1. Workflow of our IHC & IF staining.


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